Jamun Farming – Introduction
Fruits are always beneficial for your body and health. As people are realizing the benefits of fruits more and more, fruit farming is gaining more popularity day by day. Fruits are easily cultivated and you can gain more profit by owning a fruit orchard. Another benefit is that it gives immense pleasure to have a fruit farm.
Among fruits, Jamun is one such fruit which is hardly cultivated commercially but has a very good scope for such cultivation. Jamun is very nutritious and delicious fruit. The berries are packed with antioxidants and several important nutrients which are essential for your body. It has also medicinal properties. The Jamun tree only gives harvest for a short period of time. Due to its nutritional value and a short period of availability, the demand for Jamun surpasses its supply. Under such a scenario, cultivation of Jamun can be a very good business for you. you can reap huge benefits by cultivating Jamun. By using modern technologies and implements, you can grow a very good farm of Jamun.
Scientific Name of Jamun: Sygyziumcumini
Top Countries Producing Jamun
The Jamun tree is native to India. Over time, its cultivation has spread to other countries as well. It is also grown in Pakistan, Nepal, Queensland, southern parts of Asia, China, Hawaii, Florida, Brazil, Guyana, Tobago etc. In India, the main states producing Jamun are Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra etc.
Common Name Of Jamun In Other Languages
|English||Jamun, Java Plum, Black Plum|
Different Varieties Of Jamun Farming
Usually improved varieties of Jamun are not cultivated. The native ones can only be used to start a farm. There is one variety called the Raja Jamun which grows in the northern part of India. This variety has fruits of purple color and a large size. Another variety called paras in Gujarat also bears large sized fruits. A variety of Jamun which grows in the city of Varanasi is seedless. Narendra Jamun 6 is one such cultivar which has been found in Faizabad. It is said to possess the desirable characteristics.
The other commonly known varieties include ashada, kaatha, bhado, badama, jathi etc. There are few improved varieties such as KonkanBahadoli, CISH J-42, Rajendra Jamun 1, GomaPriyanka, CISH J-37 etc.
How To Start Jamun Farming
For Jamun cultivation for commercial purpose, you have to use improved implements and proper knowledge of Jamun farming. Only then you can expect to gain a good yield.
Soil Conditions For Jamun Farming
The Jamun tree is considered very hardy and can grow in almost all types of soil. You can use loam soil for the cultivation of Jamun plants. You must avoid using too deep or too light soils. Jamun trees can tolerate waterlogging and saline conditions. But, since you would be cultivating them for commercial purposes, you must avoid such conditions. The soil which you should use must be well drained and fertile with nutrients. The soil must have a good water retention capacity so that it can hold moisture. For the young plants, good soil is needed. As the plants grow older, the roots develop deep. Therefore, the soil has to be deep to allow penetration of roots inside. You must use well aerated and good quality soil. The ideal ph of the soil would be more or less neutral. Using soils of extreme ph can prove harmful for cultivation.
Climatic Conditions For Jamun Farming
Jamun grows best in regions of tropical and subtropical climates. You can grow Jamun trees in the lower ranges of the Himalayas having an altitude of up to 1300 m. Places having neither hot nor too cold climates are ideal for cultivating Jamun. At the time of flowering and fruit formation, the Jamun trees require a dry climate. A light shower at the early time of the season is good for fruit setting and development of young plants. Although mature plants do not need constant care and attention, young plants are susceptible to frost conditions. Therefore you must protect the young plants from frost.
Land Preparation For Jamun Farming
You must clear the land properly. Any weeds, stumps, and materials belonging to previous cultivation must be cleared out of the field. When the land is clear, you must plow it several times. After that, you must apply harrowing of the land to achieve a fine tilth of the soil. The soil preparation must be done in the summer season. After that, you need to dig out pits of dimensions 1m*1m*1m.
After several days of digging, you must fill the pits with well-decomposed farmyard manure which is mixed with topsoil. While digging you must dig out the topsoil and use it for filling the pits. Once the pits are ready, you need to apply a light irrigation. This settles down the soil in the pits. More pit fillings can be added later if required. You also have to provide proper drainage channels in the field so as to avoid water logging conditions in the land.
Plant Propagation Methods For Jamun Farming
Jamun is propagated by seeds as well as vegetative methods. But if you propagate them directly by seeds, it will take longer to bear fruits. Therefore seeds are used to grow seedlings which are then used as rootstock for vegetative propagation. Vegetative propagation methods such as inarching, budding and grafting are generally practiced. The inarching method is usually not done for commercial propagation. The seeds of Jamun do not have any dormancy period. You can sow them directly into the soil. It takes about 10-15 days for the seeds to germinate. Budding or grafting method is practiced on seedlings which are a year old.
You can transplant the seedling for use as a rootstock in the spring or monsoon season. Before applying budding method, you must make sure that the seedlings have attained 10-14mm of thickness. You must apply the budding method in the month of July or August. In case you are cultivating in regions where rainfall arrives early, you can start budding in May-June. There are also many methods for budding. You can try forkert, shield or patch methods of budding. However, it has been seen that the workers method gives better success compared to other methods.
Planting Methods Of Jamun Cultivation
Before planting the saplings, you must make sure that the grafting or budding has been done on healthy plants. You must also keep in mind that grafting has to be done at a point which is no higher than 20-30cm from the level of the ground. You must also make sure that the root system of the sapling is properly developed and has fibrous roots.
While planting, you must plant the sapling in the middle of the pit which was dug earlier. The point of grafting or budding must be kept above the soil. After planting, you must put soil near the base and secure it gently to the ground. Immediately after planting, you must apply a light irrigation to the plants. You must also provide support to the plant if required.
Planting Season And Spacing In Jamun Cultivation
Jamun plants can be transplanted in spring or onset of monsoon season. But it is advised that you must plant them in monsoon. If you plant in spring, the young plants have to go through a hot summer.
Usually, you can apply spacing of 8m*8m for grafted or budded plants. For the seedling plants, you can provide spacing of 10m*10m.
Irrigation Methods In Jamun Farming
You need to apply the first irrigation at the time of planting the Jamun plants. A light irrigation will be sufficient. If you have planted them before the monsoon, there is no need for irrigation. The young plants need 8-10 irrigations per year. Irrigation must be applied at the time of flowering and fruit setting. Mature plants do not need frequent irrigation. However, irrigation in dry weather and during winter is needed. If you apply irrigation in winter, you can also save the plants from the harmful effect of frost.
Fertiliser Application In Jamun Farming
Usually, the Jamun trees can grow well without the need for any manures or fertilizers. But, if you are growing the Jamun farm for commercial purpose you have to use nutrition management methods. Generally, Jamun trees attain excessive vegetation growth when they grow on rich soils. In such cases, if you apply more nutrients, the fruit growth is hampered. Therefore you have to decrease the use of nutrients at that time. As per requirement, you have to apply basal doses of fertilizers and manures.
Intercultural Operations In Jamun Farming
While the plants are young, you can utilize the space in your Jamun orchard to cultivate some fruits and vegetables. This will provide you with some extra income. Weeding can be applied as and when required. You can apply manual weeding or any cultural methods whichever is suitable. The training and pruning of Jamun trees are also not required very frequently but you can apply them whenever it is needed.
Diseases And Pest Management Of Jamun Farming
Given below are some of the common diseases and pests affecting Jamun plants and their control methods.