Mango Cultivation in India – Production Area, Climate, Harvesting and Fruit Handling!
Mango has been grown in India since long and is considered to be king of fruits. Its mention has been made in Sanskrit literature as Amra.
Alexander the great found a mango garden in Indus valley in 327 B.C. Ameer Khurso saint and poet from Turkoman wrote a poem on mango as early as 1330 A.D. Akbar the great (1556-1605) planted one lac mango trees in his bagh, which was named as Lakh Bagh.
Vavilov suggested ‘Indo-Burma’ region as the centre of origin of mango. Folklore and religious sites of Indian people are attached to mango. Mango has attained the status of the national fruit of India. It travelled to west; South Africa and Mexico through mango stones. Genus Mangifera contains 49 species of which only 41 are valid. Mangiferaindica to which the most of the present Indian cultivars belong is of great importance. Over one thousand varieties have been reported belonging to this genus. Some other genus found growing in India are M. sylvatica; M. caloneura, M. foetida and M. caesia. At present mango is commercially grown in Asia and European countries.
Area and Production:
Mango is commercially cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Karnataka, Kerala, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, UttaraKhand, Punjab and Haryana, Maharashtra and Gujarat. Mango cultivated over an area of 2309 thousand hectares with an annual production of 12750 thousand metric tones. India produces quality mangoes; Alphonso is highly liked by the western countries.
In Punjab, mango is being cultivated in whole of the sub-moutane belt comprising Gurdaspur, HoshiarpurRoop Nagar, Fatehgarh Sahib, Mohali and Patiala districts. Now its cultivation has spread to arid canal irrigated areas of northern India.
Mango leaves are fed to cattle in the shortage of fodder. Leaves are also used in various ceremonies in Hindu rituals. Mango tree has certain medicinal properties. Its wood is used for furniture making and as fuel. Fruit is a source of vitamin A and C. Mango pulp is laxative in nature and has unique nutritional value.
Fruit is utilized at all stages of development in various ways ranging from chutney, pickles and curries. Ripe fruit is taken after meals. Various types of syrups, nector, jams and jelleys are prepared from the pulp/juice. The stones kernels are fed to pigs. The bark of the wood is useful in the industry.
Mango belongs to family Anacardiaceae. Fruit plants such as cashew nut (Anacardiumoccidentale) and pistachio nut (Pistaciavera) also belong to this family. Three species of genus Mangifera found in India are Mangiferaindica with edible fruits, M. sylvatica with non-edible fruits and M. caloneura.
Mangifiraindica (2n = 40). Seedling trees are big is size and can grow over 20 metre high with a same spread. Grafted trees can attain a height of 8-10 metres with a dome shaped top. Mango is evergreen with spreading branches. On road sides seedling trees have erect branches.
The leaves are alternate, leathery and lanceolate in shape, with short petiole. Inflorescences in mango appear mostly terminally and rarely axillary. Flowers are small both male and hermaphrodite flowers are borne on the same inflorescence, which may be of 10-40 cm long. The stamens (4-5) of different lengths are present in a flower only one or two are fertile and rest are reduced to staminodes. Ovary is one celled, oblique and compressed. The fruit is a drupe with leathery epicarp, fleshy mesocarp (edible) and a seed with hard covering (stone) endocarp.
A particle may have few to more than 1000 flowers. The ratio of male to hermaphrodite flowers varies from 4:1 to 1:1. The ratio can vary with season, from area to area and within cultivars. In northern India Dusehari, Amrapali and Langra cultivars may have 80,85 and 65 percent perfect flowers, respectively. Some of the sucking mango selections have only 25 to 30 percent perfect flowers.
Flowering and Fruiting:
The grafted mango plants can bear inflorescence in the first year of its planting. This in-florescence should be removed for enhancing vegetative growth required for canopy of the tree. Well nourished grafted plants may start bearing after 3-5 years of plantings depending upon the nature of the cultivar. In northern India flowering in mango takes place in February- March. Few plants in an orchard flower in December or January.
These inflorescences can be damaged by frost, which is a normal feature in this part of the country. Flowering on the same tree can continue for a month due to differences in shoot maturity. This can be avoided by withholding irrigation to the orchard during October-November and spraying 100 ppm NAA in October and repeating the same in November. It takes 5-6 months depending upon the cultivar to mature and ripen the / fruits, after flowering.
In Northern India mango give flushes of new growth from February to November. The number of these flushes depends upon many factors, particularly, cultivar, nutrition and irrigation (soil moisture). In orchards with assured irrigation facilities, there can be 5-6 flushes in comparison to 3-4 in rain-fed conditions. One should take more flushes in young non-bearing plants, but flushes should be restricted up to October in bearing trees. This practice shall help the growers to get regular crop with good yield.
The bud apex become dome-shaped, broaden and get round. The scales grow and conical shape of the bud is the first sign of mango bud differentiation. Flower bud differentiation depends upon many factors such as cultivar, temperature, nutrition and growing of inter crops. For example in Bagpat area of U.P. flower bud differentiation takes place in November- December, but in Punjab it takes place in September-October.
Training of the Tree:
It is very necessary to give the mango trees desired training by regular pruning, for the first 3-4 years of growth. Mango needs little annual pruning, because it grows to a dome-shaped tree in a natural way remove the lower most shoots near the ground. Allow the plant to grow as single stem up to the height of 50-60 cms.
Select scaffolds on all sides of the trurJc at a distance of 15 to 20 cms. No scaffold should be selected one above the other at least less than 40 cms of distance. These scaffolds should be pinched at the apices to get side branches on each scaffold. Thus there can be 8-10 branches on a tree, providing the shape of an umbrella to the tree.
Mango can be grown on a variety of soils. Poorly drained soils should be avoided. It does not perform well in soils with pH more than 7.8. Alluvial soils with good amount of organic matter and soil pH between 6.5 to 7.5 are best suited for mango orchards.
Normally growers feel that mango can be planted anywhere as it is a hardy plant. This is not true. It is very sensitive to both harsh summer temperature and winter frosts/freeze. The site for commercial plantation should be selected in an area where already mango orchards exist. It should not be planted in the vicinity of brick-kilns, because fumes emitted by the burning of coal are harmful to the mango fruits. A disease called black tip of mango is associated with these fumes.
Mango is a tropical fruit but is successful in sub-tropical conditions. At the time of flowering the occurrence of frost and rain is harmful. The most suitable temperature for the growth of mango is 22 – 27°C. Rains at fruit maturity are beneficial for the improvement of fruit size and quality. ‘
Numerous cultivars of mango are being cultivated throughout the country. There are three kinds of mango cultivars depending upon the purpose, viz. pickle, sucking and table types. Different mango cultivars are suited to different agro- climatic zones. Hence, while selecting a cultivar for orcharding, the fruit quality, productivity and adaptability to the area should be given prime importance. For example, Alphonso is very successful in Maharashtra and Goa areas; Dusehari in Lucknow (U.P.) and Suvamarekha in A.P. KishanBhoghas failed in Punjab due to frost.
Time of Fruit Maturity in India:
|February – July||Andhra Pradesh.|
|April – July||Gujrat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu.|
|May – August||Bihar, Kamataka, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal.|
|June – August||Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan.|
|July – September||Himachal Pradesh and Jammu Kashmir.|
Due care should be given while choosing a cultivar for commercial use. Dusehari, Langa, Chausa, Amrapali, Rampur gola, Bambay green and Alphonso along with over sixty sucking types are performing very well at Fruit Research Station, Gangian of Punjab Agricultural University. Some other new promising xariates in India are PusaArunima, Pisa Surya, Ambika, CISH-M2etc. Some important mango cultivars are discussed.
Most important cultivar of mango having export potential. It is performing well in the Ratnagiri area of Maharashtra, and to a small extent in Gujrat and Karnataka. It has been recommended for North India too Alphonso is known by different names in different areas as Kagji, Badami, Aphur and Hapur etc.
Tree is medium, upright and spreading. Fruit is of medium in size (250 g.). It has thin skin with attractive blush on yellow ground. Flesh is firm and of excellent quality. It has good TSS: acid ratio. In North India fruit ripens in mid July. TSS ranges between 19-21%. The cultivar is prone to spongy tissue.
It is a cross between Dusehari X Neelum and has been released by lARI, New Delhi. It is a dwarf and regular bearing cultivar suited for close planting. It is being popularised for its high orchard efficiency. The fruit size is little smaller than Dusehari, but ripens later than Dusehari. Under Punjab conditions it rippers in August Fruit has good keeping quality and fruit flavour. The TSS ranges between 18-20%.
- Banglora (Totapuri):
It is the commercial cultivar of South. It is regular and heavy bearing cultivar. Fruit is oblong, large and necked at the base, with prominent beak. Skin thick, golden in colour, flesh firm and flat in taste, Stone is oblong and hairy: TSS varies between 15-16%.
- Banganpali (Safeda):
It is a commercial cultivar of south particularly Andhra Pradesh. Fruits command premium price in North Indian markets due to its earlyness. Fruits remain in the market from March and to July. Trees are of medium in vigour, spreading with rounded top. Fruit size medium to large (300-450g.), beakless.Skin thin and smooth, yellow in colour, flesh firm and fibreless, good quality fruit. Stone have few hairs all over. Keeping quality is good. TSS varies between 17-18%. Under Punjab conditions fruits ripen in July.
- Bombay Green (Malda):
It is very popular cultivar of Ganga-Jamuna plains. In Punjab it is commonly known as Malda. It is heavy bearer with medium-sized fruits of light green colour. Trees are medium to large, spreading and moderately vigorous. Fruits are beakless with round spex. Skin is medium thick flesh soft, fibreless, yellowish with TSS of 17-18%. Stone is densely covered with small hairs. Fruits ripen from May-July. In Maharashtra it ripens in May and in North India it ripens in July.
- Dusehari (Dashehari):
One of the most popular cultivar of North India, with excellent quality and size of fruit. It is being cultivated in south India also. Trees are moderately vigorous, spreading with rounded top. Fruit is oblong with round base. Shoulders are equal and fruit is beakless. Skin is medium thick smooth, yellow, flesh firm, fibreless pleasant flavour. Taste is very sweet. Stone is medium covered with fine fibre. It is a regular bearer. Fruits ripens from June-July. TSS 19-20 percent.
This cultivar originated in Bhagalpur area of Bihar. It spread to North and West Bengal due to its well-sized fruits. Tree is vigorous and spreading. Large-sized fruits with stone heaving little fibre. The fruits remain light green even at ripening. TSS is 17-18 percent. In Punjab fruits ripen in August. In Bihar it ripens in July.
Very important cultivar of North India after Dusehari. It originated as a chance seedling in Banaras. Tree is very vigorous and spreading. It is alternate bearer requires more planting distance due to its vigour. Heavy yielder. Fruit size is medium, light green at maturity. Very strong and pleasant flavour. Stone has fine fibre all over. In Punjab it ripens in end July. TSS 19- 20 percent.
- Rampur Gola:
This cultivar originated in Rampur (U.P.). Trees are vigorous like Langra. The leaves are narrower than Langra. It is some what tolerant to frost, hence suited to Punjab conditions. Fruits can be used for pickle purpose also. Fruits are round in shape, remains light green at maturity. Skin is medium thick, flesh whitish yellow and firm. Stone small in size. Taste is good. Ripens in August.TSS of pulp 18 percent.
- Samar BahistChausa (Chausa):
This is one of the best late ripening cultivar of North India. It originated is a chance seedling in Malihabad (U.P.). Tree is vigorous and spreading. It is also irregular bearer. Fruits are of medium size with equal shoulders, skin medium thick, flesh firm and fibreless. Quality of fruit very good. It ripens from July to end August. TSS of pulp 19-20 percent.
A good collection of promising sucking mangoes is being maintained at Fruit Research Station Gangian of the Punjab Agricultural University. Out of sixty promising sucking mango selections some selections have been released for their cultivation. The outstanding ones are GN2, GN3, GN4, GN5 and GN12 (GangianSindhuri). It is interesting to note that all sucking types are more or less tolerant to frost than Dusehari and other table purpose cultivars.
Before planting a mango orchard, the layout and preparation of pits may be completed at least one month in advance. It is desirable to propagate own mango plants from a desired mother-tree of a true to type cultivar. In case it is not possible, then plants may be booked with the Fruit Research Station of Gurdaspur or at Gangian (Dasuya) of the Punjab Agricultural University.
Mango should preferably be planted from August to October. It can be planted in March if regular irrigations are applied in summer months.
It varies from cultivar to cultivar. Langra, Chausa and Rampur gola may be planted at a distance of 11.0 metres. Semivigorous cultivars like Dusehari and Alphanso may be planted at 9 metres apart. Amrapali can be planted at 7 metres or 7 X 3.5 m apart closely planted plants are required to be given a light pruning at the time of each harvest.
Numbers of plants required for one hectare are as follows:
|Cultivar||Planting Distance (m)||Square System||Hexagonal System|
|Amrapali||1 X 3.5||392||448|
|Bombay green Dusehari||7×7||196||224|
|FazliLangraChausa||10 X 10||100||110|
|Rampur gola||11 X 11||81||90|
Planting in the Field:
Only well-sized healthy plants should be lifted from the nursery. Care should be taken to lift 80 percent of the feeder root and tap root system in an earth ball. The earth ball should not be too big to break during transportation. From distant nursery the plants should be brought in plastic bags of 30 X 15 cm size. Some quality soil + F.Y.M. mixture may be placed in each bag before placing the lifted earth ball in the bags.
It is better than trash/grass used for wrapping the earth balls. If it is not possible to get the polythene bags, than the containers (plastic/wooden) or crates should be used to pack the plants. This will help in checking the breakage of earth balls during transportation.
Remove the packing material gently and place the earth ball in centre of the prepared pits. The upper surface of the earth ball should be in level with the soil in the field. The plants should not be planted too high or too low in the prepared pits. Press the sides of the newly-planted plants carefully without pressing the original earth balls. Apply light irrigation immediately after planting and level the surroundings in ‘wattar’ conditions.
Care of the Young Plants:
Provide light irrigations at an interval of 4-7 days for a month or so. To save the grafts from being damaged due to high velocity winds, wooden stakes of which lower portions are dipped in coaltar to check the attack of white ants can be provided for the first year. Apply one litre solution to each plant by mixing chloropyriphos 10 ml/litre, after one month of planting to control white ants attack. Repeat this treatment in September for the first three years of age of the plant.
Young mango plants are very susceptible to low temperature and frost injury. Frost can damage grown up trees also. In North India, frost usually occurs from December to March. Hence adequate protection from winter injury should be provided to the young plants. Thatches/kullies of Sarkanda or paddy trash should be prepared in the month of November. Keep the southern side of the ‘kullies’ open for aeration and sunshine.
If the rainy reason had little rain then it is definite that severe frost shall occur in winter. Severe frost during January 2008 killed many mango plantations. In addition to thatches, a spray of clay (Golu/Pocha) @ 20% may be given during November before the occurrence of frost. Apply irrigations to keep the soil moisture in field conditions during winter months. Smudging should be carried out by burning the dry grass/ weeds or rice trash at some places in the orchards to keep up the orchard temperature. All these measures should be taken up simultaneously to protect the mango plantations from frost/ freeze injuries.
Protection during summers:
The young plants can be killed by hot summers (loo). Grow arhar around the plants to provide desired shade. It should be grown at least one metre away from the plants. White wash the tree trunks in April or wrap the trunks with paper to avoid sun injury.
The old inferior, unproductive seedling mango trees can be improved by top working. The benefit of established root system and well developed scaffold system can be taken by grafting with a desired cultivar. The limbs of the trees are headed back during January by keeping 30 cm long stubs. The cut ends should be smeared with Bordeaux paste/paint. Many shoots emerge on the stubs during March-April.
Select out growing two shoots on each stub. Thus there should be not more than 8-12 shoots over the tree. Remove the rest of the unwanted sprouts. These shoots are side/veneer grafted during August- September. A new tree is formed. Keep only successful grafts. Continue to remove the off shoots periodically.
To rejuvenate the old/frost damaged trees, no grafting is done. Rest of the procedure is same as in top working. At the time of top-working/rejuvenation it will be beneficial if 30-40 grams of Bavistin is added to the roots in 5 litres of water to check fungal attack. Sometimes of the trees are infected with root rot fungi, the sprouts emerging on the stubs may not survive and get killed soon after, bark of the trunk get loosened and tree dries up.
Inter Cropping or Fillers:
Usually mangoes are planted wide apart and have juvenile period of 4-5 years. Hence, the interspaces can profitably be utilized for growing of crops. Select the intercrop very carefully. For the proper development of root system and canopy of the young plants, aeration and moisture is very necessary.
It will be beneficial to remove weeds from the basins periodically. Intercrop should not interfere with the mango plants for nutrition, light and moisture. Intercrops can be grown for the first 4-5 years of age of the plants. Wheat can be sown by providing separate irrigation system to the mango plants. Pulses like grams and massar should be preferred. In Khariff season Moong or Arhar should be grown. Vegetable growing can be useful than intercrops. In Uttar Pradesh Sugarcane and poplar are being grown as intercrops.
Fillers are a good alternative to intercrops. Fruit plants like Plums, Peaches and Papaya can be planted as filler in mango plantations. Mango is a slow growing fruit crop. Hence, mango itself can be used a filler, which should be removed when it starts interfering with the main plants.
Water is life for young plants. Light and frequent irrigations give better results than flooding after long intervals. Irrigation interval depends upon type of soil, climate and source of irrigation. The young mango plants should be kept at field capacity (‘Wattar’) during summers by applying irrigation at 5-7 days interval. Increase this interval slowly to 20 days as the winter starts.
During rainy season avoid irrigation. If intercrops are being grown, provide separate irrigation system to provide irrigation to the mango plants during April when wheat do not require any irrigation.
Under North Indian conditions, bearing trees should applied irrigation one week before flowering and then after fruit set. During winter months, the interval of irrigation may be over 25-30 days. Proper moist conditions should be kept from April to October.
Manuring and Fertilization:
It has been observed that plants supplied with high quantity of farmyard manure flourish well than fed with only inorganic/synthetic fertilizers. The requirements for various nutrients may vary in different soils for different mango cultivars. In general, plants should be given nutrition depending upon the age, canopy and yearly productivity.
Non-bearing but Juvenile:
The period between planting to first bearing is known as juvenile period and stage of growth as juvenility. During this period, plants need nutrition to give out flushes at regular intervals. The emerging leaves are of coppery or light green in colour depending upon the cultivar. These leaves take 25 to 30 days to develop green colour. During this period, these leaves draw their photos3mthates from the older leaves. So it is very necessary to provide adequate nutrition during the growing period.
It will be appropriate to split the nitrogenous fertilizer dose into 3 or 4 parts and each applied at each flush from March to September. If the inorganic/synthetic fertilizers are mixed with farm yard manure a few days before their actual application gives added advantage in terms of availability of nutrients. Such type of mixing help in checking leaching of nutrients in light soils. Mix two kilograms of farm yard manure and 20 grams of urea per year age and apply during February, April and June each year.
Thus each plant shall get 6 kg of F.Y.M. and 60 gm of urea in the first year and 12 kg F.Y.M. and 120 gm. urea in second year and so on. In the third year onward additional dose of super phosphate and Muriate of potash should be applied.
Following dose of fertilizers have given good results in farmers fields on cultivar Dusehari.
|Age (Years)||F.Y.M. (kg.)||Urea 46% N gm.||Superphosphate 16% P2O5 gm.||Muriate of Potash 60% Kp gm.|
|1 – 3||5-20||60 – 150||100 – 250||50 – 150|
|4-6||25 – 50||200 – 300||300 – 500||200 – 300|
|7-9||60 – 90||300 – 400||500 – 750||300 – 400|
|10 and above||100||400||750||400.|
For the first three years the dose may be split in to three equal parts and applied in February, April and June. After this apply farm yard measure plus super phosphate plus muriate potash during December or in January. Urea may be split applied in February and April. If due to any reason there is no fruiting, no urea may be given during April.
Since the cost of fertilizers has gone up and efficiency of production is going down due to frost every year. It is advisable to skip super phosphate and Muriate of potash in non-bearing (off) year. Leaf analysis should form the basis of additional application of fertilizers.
Deficiency Symptoms of Essential Elements:
Nutrition of mango is an important orchard management practice. Canopy development and bearing both are dependent upon nutrition. Both excess and deficiency symptoms are given below.
Deficiency of N causes stunting in plants. The leaves become light green, do not attain full size. The old mature leaves become yellow. The flush length is reduced. In bearing trees the number of flushes is reduced and fruit size decreases with the severity of deficiency.
P deficient plants show severe stunting of growth. Leaves may fall prematurely. Branches show dies back symptoms. High P causes burning of old leaves which starts from the margins and progress towards mid-rib, leading to leaf fall and then drying of branches.
K deficiency appears on semi-old leaves usually in the middle of the shoots. Purplish discoloration of leave start with mild deficiency and intensity increases with severity of deficiency. The leave showing necrosis progresses on the more mature leaves. No toxicity of K excess has been observed in North Indian mango orchards.
No typical deficiency pattern on leaves has been observed. However plants remain stunted. Addition of Superphosphate as phosphatic fertilizer takes care of calcium also. Sufficient Ca is present in superphosphate.
Deficiency symptoms appear on mature leaves. Lamina start yellowing from margins and dark green bands on both sides of the mid-rib are clearly seen. The deficiency can be checked by spraying magnesium sulphate @ 2g/L of water at flush time from May to July.
Under field conditions it is very difficult to observe S deficiency. However, sulphur deficient plants show similar behaviour as N deficient. Plants grow slowly. S deficient leaves show yellowing of young leaves and scorching on the margins of lamina. Gypsum and super phosphate contain adequate sulphur to meet the requirements of mango.
Mn is involved in photosynthesis and chlorophyll formation in leaves, hence deficiency symptoms appear as leaf chlorosis and vein clearing. In severe deficiency, dark-brown spots appear on the yellow portion of lamina. Leaves may fall. The deficiency can be controlled by spraying manganese sulphate @ 2 gm/L of water. Two sprays are sufficient one in April and second in June.
Zinc Deficiency (Zn):
Zinc deficiency appears on new leaves and the node length is decreased. The leaves form rosette type of tops. The tips and margins of leaves become curled. Leaves show clear intervienalchlorosis. To check the deficiency spray zinc sulphate @ 2 gm/L of water. Two sprays of zinc sulphate at flushing are sufficient.
Iron is involved in photosynthesis being a part of chlorophyll. It is found in abundance in most soils. Its deficiency causes interveinal whitish chlorosis on young leaves in new flushes. Single spray of ferrous sulphate @ 2gm/L of water during flushing cures the Fe deficiency.
No deficiency of copper has been reported from mango orchards. The sprays of Bordeaux, mixture helps in maintaining the copper content of leaves, hence, there no need to make additional sprays.
Boron deficiency causes stunting, of growth with light green foliage. The mid-rib shows browning on the ventral (under) side of leaves. Borax can be sprayed if need arises.
The excess of chlorine adversely affect the foliage of young plants. Leaf scorching starts from leaf tip and progresses towards petiole. Leaves dry up and abscise. Salt-free water supply can check this toxicity.
In mango fruit set is very low. Many panicles do not set any fruit. The fruit set can be improved by controlling powdery mildew in time. At full bloom spray NAA @ 2 to 3 ppm to improve fruit set.
Fruit drop in mango can be controlled by spraying 10 g of horticultural grade 2, 4-D in 500 litres of water during first week of May. NAA @ 10 ppm can be sprayed at pea stage to control drop.
Fruit Harvesting and Post-harvest Management:
Mango fruits should be harvested at full maturity along with pedicles. Utmost care should be taken to avoid injury. Fruit maturity can be assessed in the orchard itself when a fruit develops little colour of a cultivar or it gets light green, the fruits are mature enough to be harvested. At this stage, the orchard may be sprayed with Bavistin @ 1 gm/L of water to control fungal attack in boxes. Fully mature but firm fruits should be picked up individually or with help of a harvester machine.
The trees should not be shaken for harvesting, because the fruits on falling get injured and invite rotting fungi. The maturity time varies from region to region. In Punjab, early ripening cultivars mature in mid-June to first week of July. Late cultivars mature in August.
Grading and Packaging:
After harvest fruits are placed in shade under a varandah/ store. The grading is done before packing in boxes or baskets. Fruits are graded as per weight grade A-l00 to 200 gm., B 201- 350 gm, C 351-550 and D-551-800 gm. The different grades are packed in wooden boxes or baskets.
A basket may contain 50-100 fruits. Straw is used for packing. Wooden boxes are used for distant marketing. A box may contain 10 kg of fruit. Trash and paper is used to protect the layer of fruits from the second layer. Perforated card board is also being used. The fruits are individually packed/wrapped with tissue paper or paper shavings are used for cushioning.
Reducing the post-harvest loss is an important factor for increasing the income. Green but mature mangoes are stored in cold storages at an optimum temperature of 10-15°C. If mangoes are stored in controlled atmosphere the O2 should be 3-7% and CO2 5-8%. Mangoes are prone to low temperature injury. Loss of flavour and undesirable softening are major symptoms of chilling injury.
- Alternate Bearing:
South Indian cultivars are regular in bearing. But Langra, Chausa, Rampur gola are specifically alternate bearer in North India. Dusehari and Arrtrapaliare regular bearer. So it is advised to plant regular bearing cultivars. However, application of Paclobutrazol @ 5 gm/tree in tree basins can be helpful in checking alternate bearing.
Pachlobutrazol should be applied 3-4 months before actual flowering takes place. Removing 5-10 cm of shoot along with mango fruit at the time of harvesting also encourages new growth and help in checking alternate bearing. Checking of frost injury also helps in regular bearing in frost susceptible cultivars.
It is a one of the most serious disorder affecting many mango cultivars.
There are two types of mango malformation:
- Vegetative malformation is more prevalent in the nurseries.
- Floral malformation and third type can be mixed malformation. It is a syndrome. It is thought to be caused by mites or a fungus Fusariummonileforme or due to imbalance of hormones. Sometimes numerous small leafy structures appear in place of flowers resembling a witch’s broom structure. It is commonly called bunchy top. A few or all inflorescences on a tree can be malformed.
- Cut and burn the malformed inflorescences/shoots. 2. Spray 100 ppm of NAA twice, i.e. in first week of October and then first week of November. NAA solution should be prepared by dissolving 1:1 g (1 gm and l00mg) of 1-Naphthyl Acetic acid, (C12H10O2) 99% pure in 100 ml of absolute alcohol and slowly pouring this solution into 100 litres of water. While preparing NAA solution care must be taken that water is not to be added to the NAA dissolved in Alcohol, rather NAA dissolved in alcohol is to be poured in water, failing which NAA will get precipitated. Continuous use of NAA sprays for a number of years can totally eliminate malformation from the orchard.
It is characterized by setting of more number of marble- sized fruitlets at the tip of the panicle. The fruitlets remain dark-green in colour. Their shape resembles that of unfertilized fruits. These fruitlets remain attached to the panicle without increasing in size.
The cause of such a situation may be:
(i) Failure of pollination and fertilization due to weather or insecticide spray at full bloom.
(ii) Competition of new flush for photosynthates with the developing fruits.
100 ppm NAA sprays during October and November shall take care of inflorescence development. No insecticide spray should be given at the full bloom stage. Jaggery (‘Gur’) @ 10 percent can be sprayed at full bloom stage to attract pollinizers.
- Spongy Tissue:
It is a physiological disorder which usually affectAlphonso cultivar of mango. North Indian cultivars are not prone to this disorder. A sponge-like non-edible patch develops in the fruit flesh during ripening. Externally fruits appear normal only on cutting the fruit the disorder is detected.
The affected fruits give bad odour and are not consumed. By adopting sod culture in orchards or growing legumes as cover crops or adopting mulching of basins and keeping soil moisture near field capacity during fruit development reduces the incidence of spongy tissue development in mango fruits.
Since, mango is evergreen tree and grows in flushes, hence prone to the attack of many insects/pests throughout the year.
- Mango Mealy Bug (DrosichaMangifera):
It attacks the plants during flowering and fruiting stage from January to April. Its males are not harmful but females lay eggs in the soil. Large number of nymphs crawls up the tree and congregate on the growing shoots and panicles.
It has become a very serious pest of many fruit plants. Parthenium is acting as a host plant. Nymphs and females suck the sap from shoots and panicles and the inflorescences dry up. Unattended mango trees are seen full of mealy bugs and thus there is no fruiting at all.
(i) Hoeing during summers (April) will kill the eggs and pupae shall be exposed to natural enemies, and heat of the sun.
(ii) Destroy weeds particularly parthenium (congress grass).
(iii) Nymphs can be prevented from crawling up to the tree trunks by applying 20 cms wide sticky band with greasy/slippery material or alkathene sheet around the trunks by upto one metre above the ground level during December. The nymphs congregating below the band/sheet are mechanically killed or sprayed with methyl parathion 50 EC @ 2 ml/L of water.
(iv) Soil application of toxophene @ 225 gm/tree has been very effective.
- Mango Hoppers (AmritodusAtkinsoni; IdioscopusClypealis and IdioscopusNiveosparsus Species):
These species of hopper are very active during February- March at the time of emergence of inflorescences. A number of nymphs and adults attack tender leaves and emerging inflorescences and suck cell sap. Due to sap sucking, the inflorescences wither away, turn brown and flowers drop off. Severely infested trees show retardation of growth. Hoppers excrete honeydew on which sooty mould develop which affect the photos3nithetic activity in plants.
(i) Avoid closer planting of mangoes.
(ii) Avoid flooding of orchards too often.
(iii) Spray twice, once in February and then in March any one of the insecticides. Seven 50 EC (Carbaryl) 2g/L of water or Thiodan 35 EC (Endosulphan) 2 ml/L Or Malathion 50 EC 2 ml/L of water.
- Stem Borer (BactoceraRufomaculata):
Sometimes it becomes a serious pest and attacks the tree trunks. The full grown larva is stout, it makes tunnels in to the trunk under the bark and feed on internal tissue. Sometimes sap or hard bails of excreta are seen exuding from the holes.
(i) Clean the tunnel with a hard wire and plug it with cotton soaked in kerosene oil or chloropyriphos 20 EC (50:50) in water.
- Mango Scale:
Sometimes it appears as a serious pest in some localities. Large number of scales are seen under side of leaves. Scales suck cell sap from leaves.
Spray methyl parathion 50 EC @ one ml per litre of water during March and again in September. The spray should be oriented from under side of the foliage.
- Mango Shoot Borer (Chlumetiatransversa):
Eggs are laid on tender leaves. Freshly hatched caterpillars bore into mid-ribs of tender leaves and then bore into new shoots. Thus the upper 4-6 young leave dry up. Young grafted plants are severely attacked. The drying up to top leaves gives an indication of the borer attack. It is prevalent in August and September in North India.
At first appearance of drying top leaves spray. Thiodan 35 EC (endosulphan) @ 2 ml/L of water.
- Bark Eating Caterpillar (Indarbelaquadrinotata):
It is a polyphagous pest which attacks many fruit trees in this region. It is a pest of neglected orchards. Caterpillars bore into bark at crotches and make tunnels in the wood. The presence of a ribbon type formation of the dark brown excretal pellets. Pest is active throughout the year.
(i) Remove webbing to clean the tunnels with the help of a hard wire.
(ii) Inject kerosene oil or chloropyriphos 20 EC in water (50: 50) in the holes with a syringe fitted on a plastic bottle. The caterpillar shall come out of the hole which should be killed.
- Mango Fruit Fly (Bactroceradarsalis):
It is the most serious pest of all mango growing regions of the world. The females lay eggs just below the epidermis of the young fruit. The maggots from the eggs start feeding on the pulp thus a brown patch with resinous material is seen on the peel. Fruits start rotting and drop. Infested fruits are unfit for human consumption.
(f) Affected fruits falling on the ground should be dumped in 3-4 feet deep pits and covered with soil.
(ii) Plough the field and tree basins before the emergence of inflorescences.
(iii) Hang traps containing 100 ml emulsion of methyl Engenol 0.1 percent. Malathion during fruit development period (April-June) under North Indian condition.
(iv) Give three sprays of chloropyriphos 20 EC @ 2 ml/L of water at 20 days interval starting from 1st May.
(v) Dip fruits in 5 percent sodium chloride solution for one hour for killing of eggs and to remove insecticide residue.
- Budmite (Eriophyesmangiferae):
It has been reported to be associated with mango malformation. It sucks the sap from buds and cause necrosis of tender tissues. Although controlling mite has not checked the malformation but it has been considered causal organism of malformation.
(i) Remove all malformed panicles and destroy.
(ii) Spray Rogor or Metasystox @ 2 ml/litre of water during summers (May-June).
- Leaf Gall Insect (Apsyllacistellata):
If not checked it becomes a serious pest for all mango cultivars. Photosynthetic activity is adversely affected. Larvae feed inside the galls.
(i) Spray chloropyriphos 20 EC 3-4 ml per litre when the galls are seen .The sprays to check fruit fly attack shall automatically manage gall insects too.
(ii) Four sprays of tar oil (2-3%) during egg laying period at weekly interval can reduce its incidence.
Mango the ‘King’ of fruits of India is attacked by many fungal diseases. Some of major importances are as under.
- Powdery Mildew:
It is caused by the fungus Microsphaeramangiferae. Its incidence is favoured by high humidity and cloudy weather during development of floral axis. A whitish powdery growth appears on inflorescences. The infected floral parts show necrotic streaks and eventually drop. Small fruits, branchlets and floral axis show die-back symptoms Flowers/fruit lets finally drop leaving a blackened axis.
Spray karathane @ 1.0 gm/litre or wettablesulphur @ 2.5 gm/litre when the panicles start emerging. Repeat the spray after 20 days. Give another spray if powdery mass is seen on young fruits and their pedicles.
- Anthracnose Die Back (Colletotrichumgloeosporioides):
It is also known as blossom blight. It is caused by Colletotrichumgloeosporioides. It causes heavy losses during rains. It affects shoots, inflorescences and fruits. Affected area develops dark brown to brownish black spots, which finally wither away. This infection is carried by the fruits to storage.
(f) Cut and burn the shoots showing spots of canker, anthracnose and dead branches.
(ii) Spray Bordeaux mixture 2:2:250 thrice, once before inflorescences appear, then in April and August months.
- Twing Die Back or Leaf Blight:
It is considered to be most destructive disease of mango. It is caused by MacrophomaMangifera. Minute light brown spots appear on shoots and leaves. Leaves may shrivel and fall down. The bark of affected shoots split length wise from which gum oozes out. Finally twings show die back. The fruits developing dark-brown spots may rot.
(i) Select scion wood from disease free healthy mother plants.
(ii) Sterilize the grafting knife before use.
(iii) Cut and burn the affected branches. Apply Bordeaux paint on the cut ends.
(iv) Spray Bordeaux mixture 2:2:250 in April, July and August.
- Stem Canker:
It is caused by Schizo-phyIliumcommunae. It causes dis-colouration and drying of leaves on one or more branches. The gum oozes out from infected parts. Branches may get killed. Small shell-like dirty white fruiting bodies of the fungus, with gills on the lower side appear in rows on the dead branches.
Same as under Twing die back.
- Black Tip:
It is a physiological disorder caused by toxic gasses emitted by brick-kiln chimney. It is a serious problem in orchards located near brick-kiln. At first there develop a small etiolated area at the distal end of the fruit, which increases to cover the whole of the tip. Then it turns black. Infected fruits ripen prematurely and drop early.
(i) Brick-kilns should be at least one kilometer away from an orchard and chimney should be at least 20m high.
(ii) Spray 0.6% Borax thrice, before flowering, during flowering and then after fruit set.
(iii) Bordeaux mixture 2:2:250 should be sprayed at pea size and repeated after 20 days till fruit maturity.